1 . introduction
With the changes of the times, especially since the reform and opening up, Shanghai, as an international metropolis in the East, has seen a rapid change in the appearance of the city. Various types of new-style architectural buildings emerge in an endless stream, and high-rise buildings abound on the banks of the Pujiang River.
However, there is still a certain amount of old-fashioned buildings in Shanghai. According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 32,600 old-style residential buildings in Shanghai , with a total construction area of 7,962,200 square meters. There are more than 280,000 households and 870,000 people, and they are mainly concentrated in the old city center.
These buildings include not only a number of ancient buildings such as Yuyuan Garden, Chenghuang Temple, Jing'an Temple, but also many old buildings represented by shantytowns and simple houses, such as most of the streets in Huangpu District (Xiaodongmen, Laoximen, etc.) and Zhabeibei Station. Streets, Hongkou Lipu Street, Tilanqiao, Sichuan North Road and other streets, Jingan Nanjing West Road and Jingan Temple Street, Luwan Huaihai Middle Road and Ruijin Er Road Street.
These areas have a high population density and a large number of property accumulations. The potential for fire hazards is devastating. Once a fire occurs, there are many losses and social impact.
For example, 1996 at 1:00 on November 27 Xu, Shanghai residential building Sichuan Road, Huangpu District No. 401 (4th floor, brick, built in 1937) fire, the death of 36 people, injured 19 people, destroyed building 1350 square Meters , causing damage to 45 households and direct property loss of 1.78 million yuan;
(At 1:00 on November 27 Xu, Shanghai residential building Sichuan Road, Huangpu District No. 401 (4th floor, brick, built in 1937) fire, the death of 36 people, injured 19 people, destroyed building 1350 square meters, As a result, 45 households were affected and direct property losses amounted to 1.78 million yuan. The fire was caused by the idleness of two social groups. Petrol was poured into the door of Room 205 on the second floor , which was caused by newspapers and firewood heating.
October 29, 2005 morning, Shanghai, Kaohsiung Road King 3 three-storey brick house on the house fire, 10 people were killed and 19 wounded.
In the fire statistics, the fire of old-style residential buildings in Shanghai has always occupied a certain proportion.
Fire Statistics in 2002 showed that residents of fires occurred in Huangpu, Luwan and Jing'an District 179 three, which killed six people, injured six people, causing direct property loss 649,000 yuan, fire several cases of deaths, the number of injuries, Direct losses accounted for 46.9% , 85.7% , 85.7% and 74.4% of the total number of fires respectively .
From the frequent fires, we can see that the ability of Shanghai's old residents' buildings to resist fire risks is relatively weak. This article starts with the case of old-style residential fires in Shanghai in the past ten years, and through a large number of case statistics, from the building structure and fire causes. The characteristics of the old-style residential fires in Shanghai were analyzed in several aspects, including casualties, fire occurrences, early fire disposal, and fire-fighting and rescue capabilities. At the same time, problems existing in fire prevention and fire extinguishing in old-style residential buildings in Shanghai were summarized and targeted. Corresponding fire protection countermeasures and suggestions were put forward, which provided a reference for the fire safety planning, hidden danger rectification and fire prevention supervision of the old private houses in Shanghai.
2 . Case selection
In the event of fire, a disaster that is closely related to human production and living activities, in order to reflect the laws and characteristics of the fire in the social development process, and to ensure sufficient samples, this article has been selected for public use in television, newspapers, and online media for the past decade. Published 53 cases of old-style residential fires in Shanghai as research objects.
In order to truly reflect the typicality and objectivity of the analysis conclusions, a general analysis and focus analysis method was adopted, combining with the specific circumstances of fire cases, from the building structure, fire causes, casualties, fire time, early fire disposal, and fire fighting and rescue forces There are several aspects to a detailed analysis of the characteristics of the old-style residential fires in Shanghai.
Since the fire case came from the media, the specific description of each case is not the same. Therefore, when the case is analyzed, if there is no relevant information described in the case, it is expressed as â€œunknownâ€.
3. Analysis of the characteristics of old-style residential fire in Shanghai
3.1 Building Structure
Shanghai's old-fashioned houses have mostly two- and three-story brick and wood structures. In all cases, there were 47 records of information on the building structure, of which 40 were brick- and-wood structures , accounting for 85% , and 7 were wooden structures , accounting for 15% . Among the 43 fire incidents that recorded information on the number of building floors, 18 of them were two-story buildings, accounting for 42% ; 21 were three-storey buildings, accounting for 49% ; and other building floors were four , accounting for 9% .
3.2 Fire Cause
The causes of fire in old-style residential fires in Shanghai are mostly electrical fires, especially the aging of electrical wires. In all cases, 35 fire cases recorded the cause of the fire. Wherein since the electrical causes of fire from 27 to 77%; as live fire caused by careless use of fire from 5 to 14%; as fire, caused by spontaneous combustion fire with fire and 1 from each, three for each % .
In the case of 27 fires caused by electrical reasons, 17 wires were aged, accounting for 63% ; 5 wires were short-circuited, accounting for 19% ; 3 were electric heaters, accounting for 11% ; and 2 were electrical equipment. Faults, accounting for 7% .
In old-style residential fires in Shanghai, the situation of elderly casualties is more serious. In all cases, 15 fires caused casualties, of which 10 cases involved elderly injuries, which accounted for 67% .
3.4 The time of fire
Shanghai's old-style residential fires mainly occurred in the morning and late at night, with high fires occurring from 0 to 2 in the morning and from 8 to 10 in the morning . In all cases, 48 fire cases recorded the time of the fire. Wherein the night (0-6 points) 17 cases, 35%; am (6-12 points) occurred 13 cases, 27%; in the afternoon (12 to 18 points) occurs nine, 19%; pm (18 ~ 24 points occurred 9 times, accounting for 19% .
Specific to each time period, there are more fires occurring from 0 to 2 o'clock in the morning and from 8 to 10 o'clock in the morning . 0:00 - 2:00 wherein the fire 11, accounting for 23% of, greater than the number of fires occurring in the afternoon and evening; 8:00 ~ 10:00 fire eight, account for 17% of the total, absolute fire period occurring in the morning Most of this happens during this time period.
3.5 early fire disposal
In old-style residential fires in Shanghai, the methods and means for early disposal of fires are relatively scarce. From the information contained in the case, it can be seen that a considerable part of the fire could have been extinguished and controlled in the early stages of its development, but in the end it has been changed from a small fire to a large fire.
The main reasons are as follows:
The first is the lack of residentsâ€™ knowledge of firefighting. When a fire occurs, residents will not take basic firefighting actions. They can only call the police and wait for the rescue of the fire brigade;
The second is that there is no corresponding fire-fighting equipment or fire-fighting equipment expired. After some fires occurred, there was no fire extinguisher on the site. Residents could only use the washbasin to extinguish water.
3.6 Fire Fighting
After a fire broke out in an old-style residential building in Shanghai, it was difficult for fire fighting troops to save.
In the collected cases, most of the fire teams arrived at the scene in time, but they did not immediately start firefighting and rescue, resulting in increased fire damage. Through case analysis, it is found that the main causes of this situation are the following:
First, the streets of the old-style houses are relatively narrow and the fire engines cannot be near the ignition point;
Second, the lack of firefighting water resources, due to the premature completion of old-style houses, there was no supporting firefighting water supply system and no fire hydrants;
Thirdly, the old-style residential buildings have low fire-resistance grades, and most of them are of a conjoined structure, and are easy to burn together. Fire-fighting forces are more difficult to control.
For example in 2006 at 2:50 on April 3 Shanghai Kangding Road Wanchun Street, Lane 74, Lane 36 old houses of fire, because the ignition point is located in the deepest alley, with narrow alleys, inaccessible to fire engines fire, firefighters were laid 8 of more than 160 m long with mains water, in order to further only one meter wide alley extinguishing water.
4. Problems existing in old-style residential fire safety in Shanghai
From the above analysis of fire characteristics, we can see that there are certain problems in the current old-style fire safety in Shanghai, which are summarized as follows:
4.1 The building is aging and the structure is flammable.
Shanghai's old residential buildings have been built for a long time. These old buildings have simple structures and low fire-resistance grades. Floors, stairs, and other parts of the building are mostly made of wood combustible materials.
After decades of natural drying, the wood in the building can form fierce combustion when it encounters the fire source and spreads rapidly. Once the fire is out of control, the entire residential building is often turned into ashes. Nene fires Sanin Road 69, Lane houses a community such as around 2008 at 12:40 on May 11 in Hongkou District, Shanghai, because the fire spread quickly, with the old Shikumen houses are connected structure, the fire was Quickly visit the neighbor's house.
4.2 The population density is high and the channel is narrow.
The continuous increase of the population has become the main reason for the expansion of the population in the Old City. Most of the newly added population is concentrated in the original dwellings, except for part of the diversion. This has created a situation of several generations together, which has caused an objective crowding. Greatly increased the risk of fire insurance. The streets are crowded and the channels left behind are less than 2 meters , which seriously affects the safety evacuation of personnel. At the same time, old, weak, sick and disabled people account for about 60 % of the residents in old-style residential buildings . In addition, the old residential buildings attracted a large number of foreigners due to the low rent, and the occupants had poor awareness of fire prevention and it was also a major fire hazard in the old residential buildings.
4.3 Wire aging, serious power overload.
When the old residential buildings were constructed and designed, the electric lines were used only for lighting fixtures. With the continuous improvement of the quality of life of the citizens, and the increasing use of household appliances, the electricity consumption of residents' households continues to rise. Many residents use copper wire instead of fuses to avoid tripping, often causing overload and heating of wires and causing fires.
4.4 The lack of water resources, inadequate fire equipment allocation.
Although the water supply in Shanghai's old-style residential areas is not tense, there are no fire-fighting pipelines in the early streets, and the newly added fire hydrants are also mainly arranged at the junctions with the streets. In many old city residents' homes, self-sufficient pumping pumps have so far been retained. In the event of a fire, the most basic source of tap water is difficult to guarantee. In addition, few households deploy fire-fighting equipment, and fire-fighting equipment is often used as a decoration.
4.5 The complex construction structure makes it difficult to extinguish fires.
Outside the old-style residential building in Shanghai, there is a solid wall. The interior is connected to the attic and stuffy ceiling through wooden staircases, floors and sandwich walls. After a fire, the fire spreads quickly and is discovered after the fire has burned through the roof. It is difficult to fight such fires: First, there are few offensive channels; Second, fire fighting in close combat can easily cause fire fighters to be injured; Third, due to narrow roads and congested traffic, fire engines are difficult to drive and cannot be rushed to the scene with the fastest speed.
4.6 Three-in-one phenomenon is serious and there are major fire hazards.
The commercial outlets of the old-style residential areas in Shanghai are connected with residents. Most of the floors of residential buildings are used as restaurants, small workshops, grocery stores, and warehouses. Downstairs management, stacking items and accommodations upstairs, and even some also used as a kitchen, in the event of a fire, it will inevitably affect the safety of the residents.
5. Countermeasures and Suggestions for Old-style Civil Fire Protection in Shanghai
In view of the characteristics of old-style residential fires in Shanghai and the fire problems they reflect, the author believes that the following aspects should be strengthened:
5.1 Fire Safety Education
Launching community fire prevention education and raising residents' awareness of fire prevention is a basic task for the development of the fire protection industry. It is also the premise and the main method for preventing and reducing the occurrence of fires in old-style residential buildings. The communities with more old-style residential buildings in Shanghai should implement the â€œpeople-orientedâ€ concept of fire prevention education and education, combine the construction of a social fire safety â€œfirewallâ€ project, give full play to the organizational advantages of community residents' committees, and make fire protection publicity and education work as a group of prevention and control. A basic measure is to implement the responsibility system of the director of the neighborhood committee, use wall posters, radio and conferences, and carry out firefighting knowledge propaganda according to key periods, important seasons, and key population groups, and do a good job in propaganda and education for young students. Do a good job in building a fire platform in all aspects. Build a three-dimensional social firefighting propaganda mechanism.
5.2 Reconstruction of Building Structure
The old-fashioned houses in Shanghai were built in the old age, with simple structures and low fire resistance grades. Most of them use wood combustible materials. In view of this situation, on the one hand, the government can carry out demolition and renovation of old-style residential buildings, and gradually reduce the number of such buildings. On the other hand, for short-term demolition and protection of buildings, safety evaluation of fire resistance performance of buildings can be carried out. The results of the assessment were targeted for fire prevention, such as painting fireproof coatings in buildings, transforming wooden staircases, and strengthening firefighting facilities.
5.3 Electrical Line Modification
Carried out the renovation project of the old-fashioned residential house electric line in Shanghai, replaced the aging line, redesigned the electric meter area, and reduced the chance of electric fire from the source. At the same time, it will focus on the inspection and control of fires, electrical facilities, and flammable and explosive materials such as liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline, diesel, etc., such as stoves, flue ducts, wires, fuses, and lighting fixtures, that may cause fire hazards during storage or use.
5.4 Simple Fire Fighting Facility Configuration
Due to the complex structure of old-style residential buildings in Shanghai, the narrow roads in the community and the inadequate allocation of fire-fighting equipment, some regions have no conditions to configure fire-fighting facilities in accordance with the regulations. In this case, various types of practical fire-fighting equipment such as simple water spray, GSM short message smoke alarm, linear multi-point temperature alarm, mobile water mist fire extinguishing device, etc. should be properly configured in each old residential building .
In particular, simple water spray devices can play an important role in protecting the safety of personnel and property damage.
For example, 2008 at 8:50 on July 24, 2nd Floor, No. 88, Lane 33 Jiangyin Road fire, but fortunately the fire, sprinkler play a role, time pouring fire head, a number of senior citizens upstairs downstairs in time to be rescued.
In addition, according to the fire statistics in 2004 , some of the old-fashioned brick-and-mortar residential buildings in Shanghai were equipped with a simple water spray device, which reduced the fire incidence rate by 30.1% and the mortality rate by 33.3% . To a certain extent, the simplified water The spray device relieved the high fire in Shanghai residents.
5.5 Strengthening Public Firefighting Facilities
All communities should earnestly incorporate the old-age residents' community fire protection infrastructure into public infrastructure construction in accordance with the relevant provisions of the "Fire Protection Law of the People's Republic of China," "Fire Regulations of Shanghai Municipality," and "Standard for Construction of Urban Fire Stations". First, in accordance with the city's overall planning, transform fire-fighting pipelines and strengthen the configuration of fire hydrants to provide adequate water for fire fighting. Second, we must promptly clear the fire lanes that are blocked and occupied, and assign special personnel to take charge of management so as to ensure the smooth flow of the fire lanes. In areas where the width of fire trucks is not wide enough or cannot pass through normally, the adjacent fire brigades should purchase small fire-fighting vehicles and fire-fighting equipment, and set up professional rescue teams to ensure the fire safety of old-style residential communities.
The information in this article comes from the Internet and was reorganized and edited by China Rescue Equipment Network.
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