Grasping the key link of vegetable water fertilization

In the vegetable production season, in order to promote the rapid growth of vegetables, vegetable farmers frequently fill in the fertilizers in the vegetable fields. They are used to dissolving the fertilizer in the barrels, and then pouring the fertilizer water into the vegetable fields. This kind of water fertilization is the main fertilization method of vegetable fields. Its advantage is that the fertilizer efficiency is fast. The shortcoming is that it is easy to waste the fertilizer in the case of inaccurate control. Not only the fertilizer utilization rate is low, but also the environment is polluted, and even the vegetables are long and the quality is not high. Therefore, it is very important to grasp the technology of water fertilization. In addition, the production of vegetables in the north of winter is mainly carried out in greenhouses and greenhouses. The fertilization of vegetable fields is also carried out by water. The vegetable farmers dissolve soluble solid fertilizers into irrigation ditch or pool to let the fertilizer flow to the vegetable meal and penetrate the soil. . The irrigation water for fertilization is mainly from well irrigation and flood irrigation, but some areas where management is extensive are even flooded with large water to apply fertilizer. This type of irrigation highlights a word of “rushing”, which can easily cause problems such as nitrogen loss, low utilization of fertilizer and water, uneven growth of vegetables, and low actual yield.

Expert comment: In the high-yield cultivation of vegetables and other cash crops, many farmers like to use water (rushing) fertilizer as a method of topdressing. It is effective to use it well, but if it is used in pursuit of surface effect, it will lead to abuse of fertilization. Vegetables are long, the quality is degraded, the fertilizer utilization rate is low, and the nitrogen loss is large, which may also aggravate the salinization of soil traits.

Choose the right type of fertilizer. Only water-soluble fertilizers can be applied with water. Urea, ammonia, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate are commonly used in nitrogen fertilizers; potassium and potassium sulfate are also used as potassium fertilizers, and potassium nitrate is also used. Phosphate fertilizer, even if it is water-soluble phosphorus monoammonium and phosphodiammonium, should not be applied, because the mobility of phosphate fertilizer can not penetrate into the root layer with water, and the application of phosphate fertilizer can only be buried in the soil.

Standardize the nutrient content of watering (rushing) fertilization, not one overdose. The amount of nitrogen in each high-yield vegetable planting should be controlled at 2 to 4 kg/mu, especially for nitrate nitrogen to be controlled below 1 to 2 kg/mu, and the limited number of potassium (potassium oxide) is between 2 and 4 kg/ Mu, otherwise the waste and loss of nutrients will be large, which may reduce the utilization of nitrogen fertilizer and may cause pollution to water quality. The water fertilization in the whole growth period is generally 2 to 3 times.

The period of use of fertilization is in the large growing period of vegetable crops. For example, the fruiting period of fruit vegetables, after picking melons and fruits, and the cabbage period, in the cabbage season, in the autumn planting, the temperature is selected to fall, the soil mineralization is reduced, and the vegetable crop is suitable for a large number of growing seasons.

Control of irrigation volume. When flood irrigation is carried out to prevent flooding of large water, when the canal is filled, the depth of the ditch is appropriate with the amount of water to prevent the nutrients dissolved in the water from being lost with water.

In addition, it should be noted that the method of applying fertilizer should be used in a timely and appropriate amount, mainly used for topdressing in intensive vegetable cultivation, with quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer as the main factor, and appropriate application of quick-acting potassium fertilizer. Some fertilizers are not suitable for water application, including water-soluble phosphate fertilizers, granular compound fertilizers, solid organic fertilizers and carrier microbial preparations.
Source: Farmers Daily
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